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Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to greater fragility and an increase in fracture risk. All bones become more fragile and susceptible to fracture as the disease progresses. People tend to be unaware that their bones are getting weaker, and a person with osteoporosis can fracture a bone from even a minor fall. The debilitating effects of osteoporosis have substantial costs. Loss of mobility, admission to nursing homes and dependence on caregivers are all common consequences of osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteoporosis is growing and, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, or the NOF, is significantly under-recognized and under-treated in the population. While the aging of the population is a primary driver of an increase in cases, osteoporosis is also increasing from the use of drugs that induce bone loss, such as chronic use of glucocorticoids and aromatase inhibitors that are increasingly used for breast cancer and the hormone therapies used for prostate cancer.

The NOF has estimated that 10 million people in the United States, composed of eight million women and two million men, already have osteoporosis, and another approximately 43 million have low bone mass placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis. In addition, the NOF has estimated that osteoporosis is responsible for more than two million fractures in the United States each year resulting in an estimated $19 billion in costs annually. The NOF expects that the number of fractures in the United States due to osteoporosis will rise to three million by 2025, resulting in an estimated $25.3 billion in costs each year. Worldwide, osteoporosis affects an estimated 200 million women according to the International Osteoporosis Foundation, or IOF, and causes more than 8.9 million fractures annually, which is equivalent to an osteoporotic fracture occurring approximately every three seconds. The IOF has estimated that 1.6 million hip fractures occur worldwide each year, and by 2050 this number could reach between 4.5 million and 6.3 million. The IOF estimates that in Europe alone, the annual cost of osteoporotic fractures could surpass €76 billion by 2050.

There are two main types of osteoporosis drugs currently available in the United States, anti-resorptive agents and anabolic agents. Anti-resorptive agents act to prevent further bone loss by inhibiting the breakdown of bone, whereas anabolic agents stimulate bone formation to build new, high-quality bone. According to industry sources, sales of these drugs in the United States, Japan and the five major markets in Europe exceeded $6 billion in 2011. Radius believes there is a large unmet need in the market for osteoporosis treatment because existing therapies have shortcomings in efficacy, tolerability and convenience. Among the most recently launched osteoporosis therapeutics are Lilly's Forteo and Amgen's Prolia, with reported sales of approximately $1.2 billion and $700 million, respectively, in 2013. Forteo, a 34 amino acid recombinant peptide of human parathyroid hormone, is the only anabolic drug approved in the United States for the treatment of osteoporosis. Radius believes there is a significant opportunity for an anabolic agent that is able to increase bone mineral density, or BMD, to a greater degree and at a faster rate than other approved drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis with added advantages in convenience and safety.